By Robert J. Alexander

This quantity is a pioneering examine of the heritage of geared up exertions within the imperative American republics. It strains the historical past within the quite a few international locations from the early 19th century to the tip of the 20th century. It additionally discusses why they seemed, what organizational and ideological traits characterised the circulation in those international locations, the function of collective bargaining, the commercial impression of prepared exertions, in addition to the relatives of the flow within the person international locations with each other and with the wider hard work circulate outdoor of the international locations occupied with this volume.

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A new constitution was written, which was not as progressive as the Social Democrats and the junta would have liked. Because of the poor showing of the Social Democrats in the 1949 elections, the elements who had controlled the Junta Fundidora decided that it was necessary to launch a new party. It was organized in large part on the basis of the personal popularity that José Figueres had won during his period as head of the junta. This was the Partido Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Party—PLN), organized in 1951.

As a matter of fact, the junta remained in office only 18 months, turning over power to Ulate in November 1949. During its short period in power, the junta, consisting principally of Social Democrats, made many changes. It imposed a 10 percent capital levy on all businesses, it nationalized the country’s banks, and it set up economic development institutions. It also outlawed the Communist Party (Vanguardia Popular) and the labor confederation that the Communists controlled. In addition, the junta called elections for a new constituent assembly, elections in which the Social Democratic Party did not do well, in spite of being in the government.

It organized talks and movie showings to members of various constituent organizations. 43 The COCRP received a subsidy from ORIT, and there was considerable disagreement between the leaders of the two federations as to how that subsidy should be used. As a result, in August 1952, Francisco Aguirre, then the secretary-general of ORIT, visited Panama to try to resolve the dispute. 44 However, this agreement did not solve the internal problems of the COCRP. In 1952, Tomás Dionisio Aráuz, head of the rural federation, was suspended from his position in the leadership of the confederation.

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