# A History of Thermodynamics: The Doctrine of Energy and by Ingo Müller

By Ingo Müller

This publication deals a simple to learn, all-embracing background of thermodynamics. It describes the lengthy improvement of thermodynamics, from the misunderstood and misinterpreted to the conceptually basic and very necessary concept that we all know this day. insurance identifies not just the recognized physicists who built the sphere, but in addition engineers and scientists from different disciplines who helped within the improvement and unfold of thermodynamics as well.

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377. A. ] Leiden 1895 §§89–92. ” under the title “Michelson’s interference experiment” Dover Publications. cit. Lorentz acknowledges FitzGerald’s priority grudgingly by saying: As FitzGerald kindly tells me, he has for a long time dealt with his hypothesis in his lectures. The then hypothetical phenomenon became known as the FitzGerald contraction, but is more often called the Lorentz contraction. 67 I believe that Lorentz fools himself here. Indeed in Michelson’s experiments the rod carrying the light source and the mirror were of brass and stone in different experiments; it seems quite inconceivable that the ether would have affected both materials in the same manner.

Multiplication of the 1-component of dx the momentum balance by dt1 provides an expression for the power of the force on the moving mass, viz. dmc 2 dt F1 dx1 , dt and, since the power is known to produce a rate of change of energy in mechanics, we must interpret mc2 as energy E mc 2 m c 2 2 m È dx1 Ø m c É Ù . dx 2 2 Ê dt Ú 1 c12 ( dt1 ) 2 Of course, the first term of the approximate formula is huge compared to the second one, but it is also constant, so that we obtain the familiar energy balance of classical mechanics: The rate of change of the kinetic energy mc dx1 2 2 ( dt ) equals the power of the force.

It was published by the Manchester Courier on May 5th and May 12th. 24 2 Energy Fortunately for him, the young, up-and-coming scientist William Thomson – later Lord Kelvin (1824–1907) – heard Joule speak and recognized the quality of his research which he continued to advertise successfully. In due course the two men became friends and collaborators. 005°F reliably and the two scientists – Joule and Kelvin – used such accurate measurements to show that the temperature drops very slightly when a gas is allowed to expand into vacuum.