By Basil Davidson

This article is designed for college kids getting ready for O point historical past, delivering an exam of a few of the foremost tendencies and occasions in West African background from advert 1000-1800.

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H i s chiefs and generals retreated to T a k r u r , where they and their successors continued to rule for many years. 1 Sumanguru's defeat opened a new chapter i n history. For the little state of K a n g a b a was the heart and core of the future empire of M a l i . It was to be the M a n d i n k a people who w o u l d now bring peace and order to wide regions of the Western Sudan. See map ori page 35. 4S 44 W E S T E R N R E G I O N II S u m a n g u r u had mastered K u m b i and the m a i n caravan routes, it was w i t h h i m and his agents that the M a n d i n k a of Kangaba had to conduct CHAPTER their business.

B u i these invaders, like others after them, c o u l d n o i h o l d the West A f r i c a n lands they had taken. T h e r e was m u c h resistance. T h e r e were many revolts. A b u Bakr was killed w h i l e attempting to suppress one of these i n 1087. B y this l i m e , however, the G h a n a empire had fallen apart. Its last kings had authority over only a few of its former provinces, and we know almost nothing about them. Great changes were on the way. The successor states of Ghana In this time of confusion, set i n motion by the A l m o r a v i d Berbers but soon b r i n g i n g other peoples into action, the G h a n a empire broke up, and some smaller states tried to build small empires of their own.

T h e biggest of these w i l l be described later on. M e a n w h i l e we should note that the F u l a n i were and are a Wesi A f r i c a n people of a somewhat different physical stock from most of their neighbours, but who spoke (and speak) a language related to the languages of Senegal. T h e y seem to have originated i n the lands that lie near the upper waters of the Niger and Senegal Rivers, and to have shared these lands w i t h peoples like the S o n i n k e w h o played a leading part i n ihe formation of G h a n a .

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