By Leslie H Stennes; Michigan State University. African Studies Center
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Additional resources for A reference grammar of Adamawa Fulani
A locative element is required by a few transitive verbs such as put and place (Put the handkerchiefs in the drawer; Place the dish in the microwave). Without this locative element, the clause is syntactically and semantically incomplete (*Put the dish). It therefore has the status of a central clause element. A locative element is also predicted by many intransitive verbs of motion such as come, go, ﬂy, drive, which can predict such meanings as Direction (ﬂying south) and Goal, which marks an end-point (go to Rome).
Here is an example of a supplementive non-ﬁnite -en clause: Built of cypress, brick and glass, the house exhibits many of the significant contributions that Wright made to contemporary architecture. 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR In spoken discourse, and in written texts that imitate spoken language, such as ﬁctional dialogue, we can often come across supplementives that are freestanding, despite their subordinate form, as in the following italicised example (see also chapters 5, 7 and 10): The large size doesn’t seem to be available.
4 In addition, the clause may contain a number of Adjuncts (A). These are usually syntactically able to be omitted. Those of the largest class, the circumstantial Adjuncts, are the most integrated in the clause. Somewhat separated from clause structure by a pause or a comma, stance Adjuncts express a speaker’s or writer’s attitude, while connective Adjuncts link clauses or parts of clauses, and paragraphs. 5 Objects and Complements are determined by verb type and are limited in number in any one clause.