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There are two major VPN paradigms: ■ Overlay VPN, where the Service Provider gives the customer emulated pointto-point links across Service Provider backbone and ■ Peer-to-peer VPN, where the Service Provider becomes actively involved in customer routing and acts as the core layer-3 backbone of the customer network. 25, Frame Relay, ATM) to modern IP-based solutions (GRE and IPSec). Copyright  2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. MPLS VPN Technology 2-23 The overlay VPNs, although well known and easy to implement, are harder to operate due to higher maintenance costs: ■ Every individual virtual circuit needs to be provisioned ■ Optimum routing between customer sites requires a full mesh of virtual circuits between sites ■ Bandwidth has to be provisioned on site-to-site basis.

Each remote site is linked with two central routers via two virtual circuits. The two virtual circuits can be used for load sharing or in a primary/backup configuration. 2-28 Advanced MPLS VPN Solutions Copyright  2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. Overlay VPN Partial Mesh Guam Moscow New York Virtual circuits (Frame Relay DLCI) Berlin © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. com Page35 Partial mesh is used in environments where the cost or complexity factors prevent a full-mesh between customer sites. The virtual circuits in a partial mesh can be established based on a wide range of criteria: ■ Traffic pattern between sites ■ Availability of physical infrastructure ■ Cost considerations Copyright  2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Copyright  2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. MPLS VPN Technology 2-21 Drawbacks of Traditional Peerto-Peer VPNs Shared PE router Dedicated PE router • All customers share the same (provider-assigned or public) address space • All customers share the same address space • High maintenance costs associated with packet filters • Each customer requires a dedicated router at each POP • Lower performance— each packet has to pass a packet filter © 2000, Cisco Systems, Inc. com Page26 The pre-MPLS VPN implementations of peer-to-peer VPNs all shared a common drawback – the customers have to share the same address space, either using public IP addresses in their private networks or relying on service providerassigned IP addresses.

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