By Santosh Kulkarni, Prathima Agrawal
This ebook addresses the necessity to enhance TCP’s functionality within facts facilities by way of supplying recommendations which are either useful and backward suitable with regular TCP types. The authors technique this problem first via deriving an analytical version for TCP’s functionality lower than standard facts heart workload site visitors. They then speak about a few suggestions which are designed to enhance TCP functionality by way of both proactively detecting community congestion via probabilistic retransmission or by means of warding off timeout penalty via dynamic resizing of TCP segments. Experimental effects exhibit that every of strategies mentioned outperforms ordinary TCP within an information heart.
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This publication addresses the necessity to enhance TCP’s functionality within information facilities through supplying suggestions which are either sensible and backward suitable with usual TCP models. The authors process this problem first by means of deriving an analytical version for TCP’s functionality below average info heart workload site visitors.
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Extra info for Analysis of TCP Performance in Data Center Networks (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Since we have assumed that there can be at most one timeout at the end of a TDP, we can approximate E Z T O with T0 . By substituting the obtained expressions for Q and E Z T O into Eq. 39) where, n 2 pc 2 j 2 − 4n pc 2 j 3 + 4 j 4 pc 2 + 24n 2 pc j 6n 2 pc pr pc = min(1, Q ibtt + Q abtt ) ˆ E Wf Q ibtt ≈ Q ibtt E Wf = ˆ (w) = Q ibtt A (w, k) = C (k, m) = Q abtt = 2n 2 j 2 pc − npc j + × j n 2 pc 2 j 2 − 4n pc 2 j 3 + 4 j 4 pc 2 + 24n 2 pc j 6n 2 pc if w ≤ 3 1, 2 k=0 A(w, k) + w k=3 A(w, k) × 2 m=0 C(k, m) , otherwise (1 − pr )k pr 1 − (1 − pr )w (1 − pr )m pr , m < k m=k (1 − pr )n , E [δ] E [ρ] E Z T O = T0 In Sect.
1) This adjustment to congestion window is executed on every incoming ACK that acknowledges new data during the congestion avoidance phase. When a TCP sender detects segment loss through expiry of the retransmission timer and the segment in question has not yet been retransmitted, TCP sets the value of its ssthresh according to Eq. 2. Furthermore, upon a timeout, TCP sets the value of its cwnd to one MSS. Therefore, after retransmitting the dropped segment, TCP sender uses slow start algorithm to increase the size of its congestion window (cwnd) from one MSS to the new value of ssthresh, at which point congestion avoidance again takes over .
5 Summary In this chapter, we presented details on mechanisms that are responsible for TCP’s reliable data transfer, flow control and congestion control. Our goal in this chapter is to not only provide the necessary background for the following chapters, but to also help readers working with TCP to gain a better understanding of the protocol. We note that TCP is a highly dynamic protocol, especially when the details of its implementations are considered. Many developers independently add non-standard modifications and enhancements to standard implementations of TCP.