By Mary W. Helms

Ancient Panama provides intensity to our figuring out of the political and spiritual elite ruling in Panama on the time of the ecu conquest. Mary W. Helms's study tremendously expands wisdom of the distribution, quantity, and structural nature of those pre-Columbian chiefdoms.

In addition, Helms delves extra deeply into choose facets of historic Panamanian political platforms, together with the connection among elite pageant and mainly prestige, using sumptuary items within the expression of elite strength, and the position of elites in neighborhood and long-distance trade networks. In an important departure from conventional pondering, she proposes that the quest for esoteric wisdom used to be extra vital than fiscal alternate in constructing long-distance touch between chiefdoms.

The basic info for the research are derived from sixteenth-century Spanish documents through Oviedo y Valdés, Andagoya, Balboa, and others. the writer additionally turns to ethnographic information from modern local humans of Panama, Colombia, tropical the United States, and Polynesia for analogy and comparability. the result's a hugely leading edge learn which illuminates not just pre-Columbian Panamanian elites but additionally the character of chiefdoms as a particular cultural type.

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Migration to the United States continued in the decades after Cuban independence because of high unemployment and a work climate hostile to organized labor. Records show that from 1921 to 1930, 16,000 Cubans immigrated to the United States. However, immigration decreased because of the Great Depression of the 1930s, as it did for most other immigrant groups. From 1931 to 1940 only 9,000 Cubans immigrated to the United States. A return migration to Cuba also characterized this period. Cigar workers were particularly likely to return.

Women played a crucial role in this political campaign, since it was their fathers, husbands, sons, and sisters who were imprisoned in Cuba. They wrote letters and sent petitions to Amnesty International, Americas Watch, the International Red Cross, and the PEN clubs, and they met with presidents, congressmen, and foreign dignitaries. They organized fund-raising banquets to raise money for their publicity campaign, arranged special memorial services to pray for the prisoners, and helped erect monuments honoring the prisoners in parks and public areas to keep them in the community’s consciousness.

Without their contributions, these statistics would have been much different. While women’s new roles brought them independence and power, it also strained marriages because many men felt threatened by these nontraditional relationships. S. population. While women’s participation in the labor force had a notable impact on the economic success of both their families and the larger community, their participation in the political activities of the community was less obvious. During the 1960s exile politics was concerned more with Cuba than with the United States, and hundreds of political organizations emerged in Miami, Union City, New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago to lead the counterrevolution.

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