By Joe H. Chow, Felix F. Wu, James A. Momoh

Utilized arithmetic for Restructured electrical strength platforms: Optimization, keep an eye on, and Computational Intelligence contains chapters in keeping with paintings awarded at a countrywide technology starting place workshop equipped in November 2003. The subject matter of the workshop used to be using utilized arithmetic to unravel hard strength process difficulties. The components integrated keep an eye on, optimization, and computational intelligence. as well as the introductory bankruptcy, this ebook comprises 12 chapters written via well known specialists of their revered fields. every one bankruptcy follows a three-part structure: (1) an outline of an enormous strength process challenge or difficulties, (2) the present perform and/or specific learn methods, and (3) destiny examine instructions. jointly, the technical components mentioned are voltage and oscillatory balance, strength process defense margins, hierarchical and decentralized keep an eye on, balance tracking, embedded optimization, neural community keep watch over with adaptive critic structure, keep an eye on tuning utilizing genetic algorithms, and cargo forecasting and part prediction. This quantity is meant for energy platforms researchers and execs charged with fixing electrical and gear procedure problems.

Table of Contents

Cover

Applied arithmetic for Restructured electrical strength Systems:
Optimization, keep watch over, and Computational Intelligence

Copyright - ISBN: 0387234705

Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Preface

Contributing Authors

1 utilized arithmetic for Restructured electrical energy Systems

1 Introduction
2 Workshop Presentations
three Synopses of the Articles during this Compilation
four Conclusions

2 Reactive strength and Voltage keep an eye on concerns in electrical energy Systems

1 Introduction
2 Reactive Power
three Reactive strength in Operations
four A basic Illustration
five demanding situations in Voltage regulate and comparable Security
6 Conclusions

3 identity of susceptible destinations utilizing Voltage balance Margin
Index

1 Introduction
2 simple Mathematical Model
three program of the recent approach to huge Scale strength Systems
four Simulation Results
five Conclusions
6 destiny Work

4 Bifurcation and Manifold established method for Voltage and Oscillatory
Stability review and Control

1 Introduction
2 identity of Saddle Node, Hopf Bifurcation, and Damping
Margins
2.1 id of serious eigenvalue
2.2 Damping margin identification
2.3 Example
three Tracing Margin Boundaries
3.1 Boundary predictor
3.2 Boundary corrector
3.3 Computation result
four additional Extensions
4.1 optimum margin boundary: fee dependent security
4.2 speedy and sluggish time scales
4.3 influence on strength method security
five learn Needs

5 online ATC overview for Large-Scale strength platforms: Framework and
Tool

1 Introduction
2 move Capability
three Transaction-Dependent ATC
four method Modeling
five determine serious Contingencies for Static Security
6 Estimating Load Margins to nostril Points
7 Estimating Load Margins to Static safeguard Violations
eight establish severe Contingencies for Dynamic Security
nine resolution Algorithm
10 Numerical Studies
eleven Conclusions

6 Automating Operation of huge electrical energy structures Over Broad
Ranges of Supply/Demand and kit Status

1 Introduction
2 electrical energy Grids as complicated community Systems
2.1 Assumptions underlying brand new operation of hierarchical
systems
2.2 Implications of violating monotone response
2.3 the key problem: tracking and regulate outside
monotone reaction procedure conditions
three present working perform: difficulties and Open Questions
3.1 old difficulties of working below stress
3.2 a few attainable recommendations and their shortcomings
four Multi-Layered Modeling, Estimation and keep an eye on technique to
dealing with electrical energy Networks Over huge levels of Operating
Conditions
4.1 complete non-linear dynamics of electrical energy systems
4.2 Disturbance- and control-driven multi-layered models
4.3 A large-scale quasi-stationary model
4.4 Multi-layered approach constraints
five Multi-Layered Estimation and Control
5.1 Quasi-stationary kingdom estimators
5.2 Multi-layered keep watch over approach
5.3 automatic non permanent dispatch and unit dedication over
wide levels of stipulations and gear status
5.4 specific case: present day hierarchical control
6 Structural Spatial Aggregation: dealing with huge Network
Complexity through Systematic Estimation and Control
6.1 Quasi-stationary kingdom estimators
7 Conclusions and Open Questions

7 strong regulate of enormous strength structures through Convex Optimization

1 Introduction
2 Exciter keep watch over layout utilizing Linear Matrix Inequalities
three a few Simulation Results
four New learn Directions
4.1 layout of decentralized output control
4.2 Coordinated layout of energy procedure stabilizers and robust
feedback
4.3 keep watch over layout with details alternate between
subsystems
five Conclusions

8 Instability tracking and regulate of strength Systems

1 Introduction
2 Participation Factors
2.1 Modal participation factors
2.2 Input-to-state participation factors
three Precursor-Based Monitoring
four Case Studies
4.1 Single-generator procedure with dynamic load
4.2 unmarried generator hooked up to an enormous bus
4.3 Three-generator nine-bus energy system
five Conclusions and instructed destiny Research
Appendix: Parameter Values for the turbines in Sections 4.1 and
4.2

9 Dynamic Embedded Optimization and taking pictures tools for strength System
Performance Assessment

1 Introduction
2 Model
2.1 Hybrid systems
2.2 Trajectory sensitivities
three Dynamic Embedded Optimization
four taking pictures Methods
4.1 restrict cycles
4.2 Grazing phenomena
five demanding situations in Dynamic functionality Enhancement
6 Conclusions

10 Computational Intelligence concepts For keep an eye on of proof Devices

1 Introduction
2 proof units and standard Control
2.1 Static Compensators (STATCOM)
2.2 Static Synchronous sequence Compensator (SSSC)
2.3 Unified energy circulate Controller (UPFC)
three Adaptive Neurocontrol of proof Devices
3.1 Neuroidentifier
3.2 Neurocontroller
3.3 wanted reaction predictor
3.4 Adaptive neurocontrol of a STATCOM dependent energy system
3.5 Adaptive neurocontrol of a UPFC dependent energy system
four optimum Neurocontrol with Adaptive Critic Designs
4.1 optimum DHP neurocontrol of a Static Synchronous Series
Compensator (SSSC)
five Conclusions
6 destiny Research

11 Placement and Coordinated Tuning of keep an eye on units for Capacity
and defense Enhancement utilizing Metaheuristics

1 Introduction
2 challenge Formulation
2.1 the situation problem
2.2 The coordinated tuning problem
2.3 The mixed placement and tuning problem
three The Metaheuristcs Approach
four optimum defense units Placement in Distribution Networks
4.1 Proposed approach
4.2 Genetic set of rules formulation
4.3 Computational results
five Coordinated Tuning of energy procedure Controls
5.1 challenge formulation
5.2 strong tuning utilizing GAs
5.3 try results
5.4 suggestions sign selection
5.5 powerful decentralized control
5.6 Time simulation results
6 Conclusions and extra Developments
Appendix: Genetic Algorithms

12 Load Forecasting

1 Introduction
2 very important components for Forecasts
three Forecasting Methods
3.1 Medium- and long term load forecasting methods
3.2 momentary load forecasting methods
four destiny study Directions
five Conclusions

13 self sustaining part research suggestions for strength process Load
Estimation

1 Introduction
2 self reliant part Analysis
2.1 ICA resource estimation model
2.2 ICA resource assumptions
2.3 target services for the maximization of source
independence
2.4 FastICA resource estimation algorithm
three software of ICA for Load Profile Estimation
3.1 Linear blending types for load profile estimation
3.2 Preprocessing of load profile data
3.3 disposing of indeterminacy of ICs
3.4 FastICA established load profile estimation algorithm
four Case Studies
4.1 information generation
4.2 blunders measures
4.3 effects for energetic load profile estimation
4.4 effects for reactive load profile estimation
4.5 effects for harmonic load profile estimation
five Conclusions
6 destiny Research

Index

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Extra info for Applied Mathematics for Restructured Electric Power Systems: Optimization, Control, and Computational Intelligence

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Basic Mathematical Model The basic concepts of this new approach can be explained with a simple two-bus system. 1. 1. A simple two-bus system. 1 has an infinite bus with the voltage of E,, a load bus with the voltage of E,, and a transmission line with the impedance of j X . u. 2 The receiving-end bus is a load bus with voltage E,, which can vary with the change of load S. 3 The load S can be varied with constant power factor. 4 The transmission line is lossless. From the fundamental equations of active power and reactive power for a transmission line [2], the following equations can be derived: 28 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS where tan 4, = Q,/P,, Es is the sending-end voltage, E, is the receivingend voltage, P, is the receiving-end active power, Q, is receiving-end reactive power, 0 is the angular difference between the sending- and receiving-end bus voltages, and X is the reactance of the transmission line.

The power engineering community and industry at large could benefit greatly from the contributions that the mathematical community might make in these areas. 24 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS References [I] Proceedings of Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena- Voltage Stability and Security. Potosi, MO, September 19-24, 1988. [2] Proceedings of NSF Workshop on Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena-Voltage Stability and Security. Deep Creek Lake, MD, August 4-7, 1991. [3] Proceedings of Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena 111Seminar on Voltage Stability, Security and Control.

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994. [9] P. Kundur. Power System Stability and Control. McGraw Hill, New York, 1994. R. Lachs. Voltage Collapse in EHV Power Systems. Paper A78057-2, 1978 IEEE PES Winter Meeting, New York, January 28-February 3, 1978. edu Abstract P V curve analysis is widely used in the industry for investigating voltage stability problems. However, P V curve analysis does not provide any information about weak facilities with potential voltage problems in the system. This paper presents a new method of finding the weak APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS locations in a large-scale power system.

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