By Erik J. Molenaar, Timo Koivurova, Elizabeth Tedsen, Andrew Reid, Kamrul Hossain (auth.), Elizabeth Tedsen, Sandra Cavalieri, R. Andreas Kraemer (eds.)

The Arctic area performs a massive function in regulating the world’s weather and is additionally hugely impacted by way of weather swap, with typical temperatures emerging nearly two times as speedy because the remainder of the area and sea ice melting a lot quicker than formerly envisioned. those fast adjustments may have major affects on human job within the area and at the Arctic marine surroundings.

This publication attracts at the result of the 2008-2009 Arctic remodel undertaking, funded by means of the eu Commission‘s Directorate basic of exterior family members, which engaged specialists in a transatlantic dialogue at the roles of the ecu Union and usa in mild of the Arctic’s altering weather and political and felony complexities. . The e-book addresses the numerous alterations and advancements within the marine Arctic, with descriptions and suggestions reflecting the present governance setting. A entire evaluate of environmental governance and sustainable improvement within the Arctic is created. Chapters discover affects and actions via quarter, taking a look at fisheries, delivery, and offshore hydrocarbon within the Arctic, and at coverage concepts and methods for bettering marine governance within the quarter. a specific concentration is given to the jobs of the eu Union and usa and possibilities for cooperation to augment Arctic environmental governance.

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Arctic coastal land is split within five states’ jurisdictions. 5 million km2 (about 70 %) of the Arctic land mass (AMAP 1998). The other regions, from east to west, are the Euro-Barents region (Norway), Greenland, Northern Canada, and the Bering region, including Alaska and the Pacific coast of Russia. Biodiversity in the Arctic experiences threats from both inside and outside the region. Bird species, fish stocks, and marine mammals in the Arctic environment are not only linked with external systems by their migration patterns, but Arctic habitats are also affected by global ocean currents and pollution transport into the region (CAFF 2010; see also below Sect.

28 A. Riedel Ice-dependent species—both land and sea species—are expected to follow the ice edge as it melts and moves further north; however, the abundance of these species is expected to decline due to the rapid shifts in marine conditions (AMAP 2011a). Walruses are also directly threatened by sea ice loss, as the ice provides additional breeding grounds which are reduced and crowded spaces on the coast provide neither a place to raise young, nor sufficient food sources (Reimnitz et al. 1994).

2 The Arctic Marine Environment 25 Ice algae develop during spring and throughout summer as light becomes available in the polar region. Polar cod, which provide a key link between zooplankton and marine mammals, live in both sea ice and pelagic environments. Nesting seabirds, such as ivory gulls, feed on polar cod and other small fish and zooplankton at the ice edge. 2 In the water column and on the seabed, fish, crustaceans and—again—marine mammals also find their habitats, including Atlantic cod, haddock, Alaska pollock, Pacific cod, and the Arctic spider crab (ACIA 2005).

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