By B. Andrew Lustig (auth.), B. Andrew Lustig (eds.)

nology in New Zealand. Angeles Tan Alora reviews at the Code of Pharmaceutical Marketmg Practices constructed by means of the Pharmaceutical and overall healthiness Care organization of the Philippines. Ruud ter Meulen and his colleagues offer special research of the Remmelink Commission's record on euthanasia within the Netherlands. Kazumasa Hoshino discusses the fmdings of the particular Committee on Gene treatment in Japan. As such examples recommend, the actions of many governmental teams advisory our bodies, even though different, are likely to converge upon a couple of specifically very important matters. If one peruses the index of files mentioned in quantity 4, definite themes are extra frequently the focal point of laws and legitimate problem than others: withholding and taking flight remedy, entry to well-being care, consent to therapy and experimentation, and concerns posed by way of HIV checking out and AIDS. the sort of universal concentration shouldn't be exaggerated, for the dialogue of issues is wide-ranging. yet that commonality, while in facts, can be no longer excellent. It means that key matters and issues in bioethics can be greatly shared between smooth cultures and societies, for the entire uniqueness of a selected nation's or region's reaction to them. problems with knowledgeable consent, in the end, implicate extra basic concerns of admire for individuals and the rights of people within the contexts of remedy and learn. problems with entry to treatment concretize deeper questions on the character and scope of a society's welfare duties to its citizens.

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Bioethics Yearbook: Regional Developments in Bioethics: 1991–1993

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Republican efforts include the Leaders' Health Care Task Force plan (Rep. Robert H. R. 3080, 146 cosponsors), which would establish health insurance guidelines (but refrain from enforced coverage regulations), mandate community rating, decrease antitrust regulations against health care providers, and maintain tax incentives for the purchase of health insurance and 34 USA S. PARKER ET AL. for savings accounts earmarked for health-related expenses. The Republican Health Care Task Force, led by Senator John H.

Rates of maternal-fetal transmission have been reported as occurring in approximately 13-55% of HIVinfected women's pregnancies ([12];[135];[141];[340]); most recent studies suggest that transmission occurs, on average, in about 25% of pregnancies of HIV-infected women [10]. Transmission of the virus may occur at one of several stages: during pregnancy through transplacental viral passage, during the birthing process through exposure to infected blood and vaginal secretions, and postpartum during breastfeeding [267].

ERISA exemptions would be eliminated, malpractice dispute resolution boards established, quality management mechanisms created, and antitrust laws moderately reformed. The Plan would control costs by three means: by making consumers more conscious of the cost BIOETHICS IN THE UNITED STATES 33 of their plans by forcing individuals who choose costlier plans to pay larger premiums; by fostering large HIPCs which will negotiate with state· approved managed care providers and thus foster managed competition; and if these mechanisms do not drive down costs, through nationally set ceilings on the growth of insurance premiums.

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